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|Posté le: Lun Déc 10, 2012 3:59 pm Sujet du message: Dogma; Saint Catherine
|translation accepted by the ESPC on XI december 1460
|St. Catherine of Urbino, the patron saint of Italy and the art of medicine
1 - Fun, childhood and early signs.
Jacqueline BENCIVENNI and Ubaldo CORELLI, gave birth to the last of their 14 children, Catherine in Urbino, on July 27, 1347. They were a family of weavers,and Catherine had 7 brothers and was one of 7 sisters living in working class district of Urbino
Even as a child, she showed great devotion and a deep spirituality considering them as the only way to achieve happiness and satisfaction of the spirit.
During the first years of her life, her mother Jaqueline takes Catherine with her when she goes to wash clothes in the river and, as was often the case at the time, the house was too far away to take the entire load of wet clothes and lay them at home, So Catherine would be put to crawling on the grass naked and her Mother would begin to wash one cloth after another. When her Mother reaches the clothes of the little girl she decides that once washed they are to dry on a thorn bush all dry and brown, so as not to stain with green.
They spend a few hours and when it's time to go home, Jaqueline goes to retrieve clothes from all the trees and bushes around, but she is about to leave and retrieve the baby, when she remembers the clothes of the baby Catherine were placed on the dry thorn bush.
As she approaches she discovers that the clothes are all dry and the thorn bush, which was dry and barren, was now covered with white flowers, as if given new life.
Another Story tells of a childhood example of her early devotion:
The little Catherine is at home playing games alongside some of her brothers, when at the start of the hour of vespers, Catherine the child stops the games and knelt to focus on her prayers.
At the insistence of the brothers she is urged to give up the prayers and continue to play with them and eat with them the fruits harvested from a nearby tree, she replied:
|"Happiness is achieved to the satisfaction of the spirit as well as the body, if our only concern is the satisfaction of bodily needs, we lower ourselves to the level of animals that eat grass in this yard. And the fruits that you are eating, are a gift that the Almighty has given us, because He loves us. Then we ought to love him and to thank him. " |
At the age of 7 years, while gathered in prayer in the Cathedral of Urbino, facing a window depicting St. Sylphaël , the light from it is becoming more dazzling, until Catherine finds herself totally enveloped in the glow which shows the face of the Archangel who speaks
|"Catherine, do not be afraid, because the Lord loves you and has chosen you." |
Catherine realizes that the Almighty has chosen her as his servant and his voice on Earth.
She realizes that her life will be dedicated to God and makes a vow of chastity.
2. Conservation - The miracle of light in the darkness
Catherine quickly understands that the Almighty chose her as his servant. Therefore, her life will be devoted to the Most High and decides to take a vow of chastity to the chagrin of her family who would like her to marry from when she turns fourteen years.
One day, while selling clothing in the market of Urbino, a young man of the family Montefeltro, gets a crush on her and with burning passion, tries to convince her father to give him his daughter in marriage.
Her father, attracted by the agricultural lands and goods promised in dowry tries to persuade his daughter to accept.
Catherine confirms her love for the Almighty and her father pulls his hair in disapproval. Frightened to see his titles of nobility fly and its assets, the father enters into a rage and locks the girl in her room until she sees right.
Catherine, discouraged by her relationship with her father, began to pray and remains for 93 days in her room on her knees to address her prayers to the Most High.
Meanwhile, Catherine eats only fruits and crusts of bread that her mother made.
On the last day, her conviction and persistence are rewarded when her father, around midnight, going into the room of his daughter, finds her hands clasped in prayer on her knees illuminated by a beam of light in the darkness.
He could only bring himself to approve the choice of Catherine to live in poverty and prayer eating no more than raw vegetables, fruit and bread.
3. Friendship - The Gregorian Order, medicine and the birth of "Catheriniennes"
One day, while she was praying in a garden near her house, a poisonous snake came out of the bushes and sunk its fangs into the hand of Catherine. While the beast attempted to flea to the roots of the bushes, as a sign from heaven, a stork appears and kills it.
In the bird's beak, the snake became a branch of oregano, the stork placed the oregano branch into the hands of Catherine, who suddenly showed no scars or ill affects of the incident.
She saw this again as a sign sent by the Almighty and in 1363 she entered the Gregorian Order to devote herself to the study of medicine.
After learning of medical knowledge, she decided to devote her life to the diligent care of the vagabonds, the poor, the sick and dying while managing to convert some to the Aristotelian Holy Church.
Subsequently, she provides aid and comfort in the hospital of Mercy Pian di Mercato in Urbino, where volunteer doctors provide welcome to travelers, pilgrims and the sick. Through her actions, Catherine embodies the model of nurse volunteer par excellence, full of charity, patience, energy and determination. This work also allows her to maximize the Aristotelian virtues.
During this period of her life she does not show any weakness and continues to provide support including during the plague of 1374.
Equipped with a bottle of aromas, a firm stick for support and a lantern, she went to the hospital and to the homes with her disciples to alleviate the suffering of poor patients.
Disciples began to gather around her. Clergy and laity eventually recognize her as a guide and example, and decide to take the name "Catheriniennes". Concerned, the Gregorian was subjected to an examination as to establish orthodoxy. While not an overly educated woman, she passed brilliantly and was assigned a spiritual director, Raymond Gaeta.
4.Conviction - Catherine prophesies the birth of the Age of the renewal of the Faith
Catherine, at this stage of her life, is well aware of the importance of theological knowledge to work for the future of the community of believers.
She also dedicates herself to the study of languages (Latin and Greek) and theology, managing to learn everything with surprising ease and speed.
Many mornings she wakes up and realizes that she has been blessed by Aristotle and has developed new ideas and learned new skills.
After these extensive studies she began to write letters to a number of political figures, contacted the Princes of the Duchies the Italian republics, reminding them of the Aristotlelian virtues and scolding them when their choices deviated from the right path and the statements of Aristotle, thus spreading the faith through her Aristotelian writings.
Then she began to travel and left on her own to speak directly to these eminent men in their Republics and Duchies, and she was always greeted with respect and always listened to by all the Italian courts.
Throughout her life she was a great writer of letters, which were written in a style inspired by the Most High so that while reading them they speak directly to the heart and inspire us deeper into the Faith, Our prophets and the Most High.
Catherine fought vigorously the disorganization of the Church and its corruption, that undermined the effectiveness of its apostolic actions.
She, developing the thoughts of Saint Dominique, concludes that the Church can not survive without a profound renewal. She wishes the Church to open up to the faithful and strengthen relations with the states, so that it can operate more strongly for peace in the Realms .
Catherine in her writings also criticizes certain decisions of the Council of Nicaea, which she believes they do not correspond to the teachings of the prophets, especially the primacy of man over woman. In this regard, Saint Dominique could say:
|"The man and woman have the same dignity and the same value because both were created by the Most High, even if they are different because the reciprocal relationship that binds the relationship is to the image of our God. In the relationship of communion with each other, men and women profoundly realize themselves, finding themselves as persons through the sincere gift of self.
Their covenant of marriage is presented in the Book of Virtues an image of the Covenant of God with men, and, at the same time, as a service to life "
Catherine, in fact, predicts the age of renewal of faith that will start a about century later.
She wrote in one of her letters to Raymond Gaeta:
The second prophet gave us a great gift: the Church, whose operation and composition is inspired by the Divine. But just as a soul created by God can tend itself to the good, so too can it be diverted by the Nameless one, so that the Church can undergo deviations. But there will come a time when, inspired by Aristotle, the Church will have to undergo a profound change and will again lead the way for the people of God to find the Sun and Paradise. It is only by taking care of the faithful flock and welcoming the faithful in an Motherly embrace, that the Holy Church can avoid becoming like the chief priest of Judea, that before the community of believers, instead of dissipating their troubles with the light of faith , was lying asleep on his rich throne. Christos haranguing the crowd in Jerusalem said, "come unto me, and hear the word of God," so the Church must do: open to the faithful who want to get closer to God, to Aristotle and Christos through theology, give them a place where the texts may be freely accessible so that they can drink them as the unfortunate traveler is watered by the hands of Christos [...]
5.Temperance - a life dedicated to peace through the Realms of Love for God
Catherine lived for a period in Siena which, like many cities in the fourteenth century, there lived a very difficult and troubled social situation. Even in Siena in fact there were bloody battles between rival factions, often being owned by powerful families vying for dominance in the city government. Catherine then decided to intervene in the name of the Most High, and start to deal with rival factions to reach a compromise in the name of faith that brought stability and peace to the Republic of Siena. After this episode her reputation as a "woman of peace" spread quickly outside the walls of Siena coming to Volterra.
Catherine was invited to intervene in this city and wherever she went she imposed Friendship and Peace in the name of Aristotle for the greater good of the city. She managed to quell the hatred between families of different political factions
She was also an intermediary between the Papacy and the city of Florence, discussing some mandates for grain and corn. To Pope Gregory XI, she wrote: "You'll get more with the stick of goodness than with a club of war."
She travels through all the republics, duchies and lands, eventually convincing the Italian princes and mayors to support the "Holy Church" Aristotelian.
6.Justice - Divine Justice through the actions of Catherine
Caterina received one day a new mission of the upmost difficulty. But thanks to her faith, perhaps through divine intervention, she finally managed its mission.
Exhausted, she returned to Urbino and receives tasks from the Pope to address various peace in Italy due to disagreements between the policies of the Princes or caused by brigands that gripped our land.
She continued to write to princes, politicians and clergy. Catherine does not show awe in the presence of the powerful and speaks to them as an equal. In her letters to politicians she reminds them that the power to govern is a "power loaned" by the Most High. She encourages them to good administration of public affairs, the common good, not personal interest. To do this, she says that the good manager must draw directly from Christos and Aristotle.
Justice has a fundamental role in the doctrine made by St. Catherine,
without justice there is no peace and if there is no peace and this assumption underlies the social and moral growth of a state.
Judge of the Duchy of Modena writes:
|[...] Be true lord and judge the rich and the poor man equally, and may your Justice be balanced with mercy[...] |
And yet, to the Doge and Councillors of the Republic of Venice she writes:
|[...] If you are righteous and so be blessed in your governance you will not act for your interests but for the universal good based on the rock of Christos the good and wise Aristotle.. [...] |
7. Selflessness - The last mission of Catherine
Catherine, after performing incredible acts in the name of faith inspired by the Most High died, exhausted and ill, on December 8, 1380.
Until the end, she continued her work of mediation between the Church and the Italian kingdoms. Crushed by the huge amount of work and travel from one end to the other of Italy, Catherine died after the Gaeta treaty between the Queen of Naples and the affairs of the Holy See.
Unable to move during the final forty days of her life, she lived with her condition and was conscious and full of serenity, knowing that she sacrificed her health for the Aristotelian community and for something higher and more important than her own life. The needs of the many outweigh the needs of the one.
After her death, her body was buried in Capua, but after three years the mortal remains of the saint were transferred to the Cathedral of Urbino. In Gaeta, the place of her death, is kept the veil from her habit.
Her right hand was brought to Siena, While at Pavia maintains a rib of the Holy.
Patron saint of Italy and physicians.
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